Executive Summary

The results of Fortinet Threat Intelligence Insider Latin America for the second quarter of 2019 reveal the continuous increasing of malware, exploits and botnet activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. The main activities include unwanted adds, criptojacking, exploit of vulnerabilities and malware for steal information from users.

What are the risk areas?


·      Unpatched software with critical vulnerabilities exposed to the Internet.

·      Infected devices or those prone to problems of more serious infections.

·      Users misusing resources, browsing dangerous sites or downloading non-legal software.

·      Misleading adds promoting malware.

·      IoT devices without control or adequate security policies.

In regard to the most detected vulnerabilities, collaboration systems such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and video calls, among others that use Session Initiation Protocols (SIP) and critical services as NTP are being targeted by multiple recognition and intrusion techniques. Old vulnerabilities still being a main vector for hackers gain access to different systems.

What are the risk areas?

·      Collaboration solutions with operational problems due to denial of service attacks.

·      Unauthorized access by third parties to VoIP solutions with the aim of making extortion calls or abusing the use of resources such as long-distance calls.

·      Access to corporate networks through servers with SIP-based services, taking advantage of multiple attack vectors.

·      Evidence of platforms without updates or with weak passwords.

·      Reconnaissance of internal networks.


DoublePulsar, the backdoor used by the WannaCry ransomware, is still a mechanism for distributing malware in Latin America. Considering it takes advantage of already resolved vulnerabilities, its continuous use evidences the vast software footprint without updates in the region, affecting companies and individuals alike.


Botnets still raising and evidence that the common problems with IoT devices continue. Default or weak passwords are the main infection vector for Mirai botnet. Millions of devices are connected and controlled for increase infections and Denial of Services attacks. Botnets are evolving and today are able to infect not only consumers but business IoT devices for use these as proxy for anonymize transactions of the dark market.


·      Ransomware and criptojacking infections.

·      Involvement of the infected devices in DDoS or SPAM attacks, denying the entire company’s access to services.

·      Password or business-critical information theft.

·      Illegal activities in the dark web.

The report also reveals the most common infections in Latin America and the Caribbean:


·      Malware infections generating unwanted adds or redirection to sites infected with malware.

·      Trojans or backdoors that allow the attacker to take full control of the infected devices

·      Viruses or infections of advanced malware for the exfiltration of information such as passwords and users, among others.

·      Malware for the exploitation of common vulnerabilities that allow attackers’ remote access to infected devices.

·      Riskware, use of free software or of unrecognized origin that offers user characteristics such as protection, but also enables the possibility of infections.

  • Use strong passwords or password managers for applications and access to IoT devices, SIP devices and applications.
  • Update your applications and infrastructures in a regular basic.
  • Define your controls on each of your perimeters, including Cloud applications.
  • Monitor and analyze your data with Indicators of Compromise for gain visibility and stop commons infections.
  • Secure your SIP Server: Protect the SIP server from the Internet: be more restrictive in terms of which extensions can be reached from external IP addresses.
  • Create usernames different from extensions: most brute force attempts try usernames that match the extension numbers or common user names.
  • Protect your IoT devices with perimetral defense including access control and Intrusion prevention policies.
  • Always be prepared for an infection or exploitation, reduce the impact with recovery plans and actions for avoid damage.
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